Duty to avert a criminal offence

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«To avert» is, in this case, to avert a possible future criminal offence; you are not obligated to report punishable offences already carried out. The duty to avert generally applies to situations where you know for sure – or think it highly probable – a person will commit sexual assault, seriously injure someone (including severe psychological abuse) or take another human’s life, according to the Penal Code Section 196.